This paper analyses perceptions of the Christian »other« in rabbinic and apocalyptic traditions in the period from Constantine to the emergence of Islam. It focuses on the reception of Daniel and particularly on traditions in Ruth Rabba, Pirqe Mashiah and Otot ha-Mashiah that use interpretations of Dan 12:1 to outline concepts of Israel's history in terms of religious status and election in relation to the »other« and reveal perspectives on Christian Byzantine society in Late Antiquity. It asks to what extent these traditions present reflections on Christian rule and/or perceptions of Christian beliefs. The different emphases of the exegetical traditions reflect historical change, especially with regard to the religio-political circumstances of the seventh century and an environment of increasing religious competition. In this way, one aspect of the reception of the Book of Daniel is explored to highlight an approach to Jewish-Christian relations after Constantine.