James B. Prothro

Both Judge and Justifier

Biblical Legal Language and the Act of Justifying in Paul

[Richter und Rechtfertiger. Biblische Rechtssprache und das Rechtfertigungsgeschehen bei Paulus.]

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sewn paper
ISBN 978-3-16-156116-0
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Published in English.
Paul's doctrine of »justification« is heavily debated among scholars. One basic question is this: What does it mean for God to »justify«? In this work, James B. Prothro explores biblical legal controversies and scenes of divine judgment in order to answer this question. He shows what it means for Paul to say that God the judge is the justifier of those who trust in Christ.
Paul often says that God »justifies« people in Christ, but what does that mean God does? The language appears legal, but many other interpretations have been suggested. Beginning from the use of this language in Judaism and early Christianity, James B. Prothro investigates biblical legal conflicts and the terminology of »justification« in Paul's letters to determine what it means for Paul to say that God as judge is the »justifier« of those who trust in Christ.

James B. Prothro Born 1986; 2008 BA, Concordia University Texas; 2012 MDiv, Concordia Seminary; 2013 MA in Classics, Washington University in St. Louis; 2017 PhD in New Testament, University of Cambridge; 2016–18 Pastor at Trinity Lutheran Church in Park Hills, Missouri; since 2015 sub-editor for Koine and Hellenistic Greek at The Religious Studies Review ; since 2018 Assistant Professor of Theology at Ave Maria University, Florida.


The following reviews are known:

In: Themelios — 44 (2019), S. 151–152 (J. Andrew Cowan)
In: Reading Religion — (Richard M. Blaylock)
In: Journal of the Ev. Theol. Society — 62 (2019), S. 188–191 (Mark A. Seifrid)
In: Bulletin for Biblical Research — 31 (2021), pp. 119–121 (Wesley Thomas Davey)
In: New Testament Abstracts — 63 (2019), S. 365–366
In: Review of Biblical Literature — (2/2019) (Kent L. Yinger)
In: Theologische Literaturzeitung — 145 (2020), S. 303–305 (Athanasios Despotis)
In: Journal for the Study of the NT — 41.5 (2019), S. 55 (Matthew V. Novenson)
In: Theologische Revue —–3693 (Hans Förster)