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Cover of: European Unification Based on Flexibility and Diversity
Bruno S. Frey

European Unification Based on Flexibility and Diversity

Section: Fiscal Policy in Action
Volume 75 (2019) / Issue 1, pp. 93-109 (17)
Published 24.09.2018
DOI 10.1628/fa-2018-0022
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  • 10.1628/fa-2018-0022
European unification has a noble aim but is endangered by encompassing egalitarianism and bureaucratization, and is moreover subject to a major democracy deficit. This paper argues that flexible and dynamic entities whose territoriality is determined by issues are appropriate for a Europe of the 21st century. The first step must be to constitutionally allow the emergence and existence of corresponding political entities with taxing and spending power. Over time these flexible, democratic, and diverse political units will take over those activities national states and the EU do not fulfill well.