»Wer die Wahl hat, hat die Qual?« – Hochschulauswahlrecht im Vergleich
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In view of the universities growing discontentment over their lack of influence on the selection of students, the policy since 1998 has been to gradually create and widen the scope of their selection procedures. At the same time these selection procedures are not to be regarded as a substitute for matriculation standards but as complementary to the specific university needs and their respective courses of study. It is hereby made easier to reach a higher quota of students who choose an appropriate course thereby reducing the sometimes large number of students who abandon their studies. Early experience has shown that a well thought out selection procedure not only increases the motivation to study but also the chances of studying with success. However, practice shows quite clearly that in many places only »simple« selection procedures take place which are based on documents sent in by the applicants and that still more persuasion is required, not least on the side of the teaching staff.Real (»absolute«) apptitude tests which decide whether the applicant is accepted or rejected are, as a rule, the exception. Most of the (»relative«) selection procedures are subject to the restriction of the number of admissions and candidates are sequentially selected. This is especially valid in regard to the 60 % quota in the ZVS (= Zentralstelle für die Vergabe von Studienplätzen, i.e. the cenral office for the allocation of places at universities) courses, but nearly all Federal provinces now have a local NC procedure in which selection quotas differing between 15% and 90% are granted to the universities.The article gives an in-depth view of both the congruities and the differences in the various provisions concerning the selection procedures within the Federal Government and and the Federal states, not only with regard to the selection standards but also to the regulations governing the procedures. A school leaving certificate, important individual results on the certificate, professional training or an occupation as well as other practice orientated experience, a selection test, an application paper or a selection interview – all these can be taken into consideration as a means of reaching the selection standard required. There is an enormous range of differences in the provincial regulations – especially in the local selection procedures – not only with regard to which selection standards are offered but also in the design of their selection standards. This also applies to other conditions which the universities have to take into consideration when forming their procedural framework. Combining of individual selection standards for instance, regulation of the severance procedure and exclusion of candidates as well as the internal responsibility of the universities for the establishment of their statutes and individual selective decisions.